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Qualifications for 8(a) Firm Status

Through the 8(a) Business Development Program, owners can compete for special contracts, such as sole-source government contracts for which there are no competitive bids, that help level the playing field for their small businesses. These small businesses can use the program to form joint ventures with already-established businesses to form mentor-protégé relationships, as well as for management and technical assistance. Businesses must meet certain requirements to be eligible to be a protégé.

In order to qualify to become an 8(a) firm under SBA guidelines, a business must meet the following criteria (effective July 15, 2020):1

  • It must be a small business.
  • It must not have participated in the program before.
  • At least 51% of the business must be owned and operated by U.S. citizens who are considered economically and socially disadvantaged.
  • The owner’s personal net worth must be no higher than $750,000
  • The owner’s average adjusted gross income (AGI) must be $350,000 or less.
  • The owner must have no more than $6 million in assets.
  • The owner must be of good character.
  • It must show the potential for success and be able to perform successfully on contracts.

Title 13 Part 124 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) spells out who qualifies for the 8(a) program as well as what counts as being economically and socially disadvantaged.

Small businesses with 8(a) status can receive sole-source contracts, up to a ceiling of $4 million for goods and services and $6.5 million for manufacturing.
The first step: getting certified
Owners interested in taking part in the program are encouraged to do an on-line training and self-evaluation course through the 8(a) Business Development Suitability Tool. The course helps entrepreneurs determine whether or not their company meets the qualifications for the 8(a) program and if it does not, directs them to an appropriate SBA resource.

Before a firm can participate in the 8(a) program, it must first be certified at certify.SBA.gov. And small businesses that want to use the certification website must have a profile at SAM.gov, which is where companies register to do business with the U.S. government. (Contact your local SBA office if you have questions about applying.) Once you have applied, the administration will send a notification letter explaining whether the business was accepted into the 8(a) program. The certification lasts for nine years—the first four years are considered to be developmental, while the remaining five are deemed to be a transition phase.

Small businesses that gain 8(a) status are subject to annual reviews in order to keep the designation and their good standing in the program. During these reviews, the business owner has to draw up business plans and undergo systematic evaluations. Entrepreneurs who have secured 8(a) firm status say that the application process can be lengthy and rigorous, having prior experience with government contracts can be helpful, and working hard to take advantage of the program’s benefits can make the experience very rewarding.

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